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Abies commonly called fir is a genus with about 50 species of conifers naturally found in Europe, North Africa, Asia and North America dominating the mountainous regions. Good looking from youth to maturity they make excellent specimens and year round screening. Shade tolerant they prefer cool summers and their soil a bit acidic.


Acer better known as maple is a genus of about 150 species of evergreen and deciduous trees found naturally in the Americas, Europe, Asia and N. Africa. From slow growing ornamentals to glorious, fast-growing, stately specimen, there are species that are suitable for container growth and species that are urban street hardy, even bonsai. Maples of all species like fertile, moist but well-drained soil, and full sun. Pruning should be done in late autumn to early winter to prevent sap from bleeding. Be aware of problems from aphids, scale, caterpillars, mites, wilts, tar spot and numerous fungal diseases but generally speaking they don't complain too much, maples just may need help from time to time.


Aronia is a genus of 2 species of shrubs commonly called chokeberry. A native to North America this shrub is naturally found in scrub and swamps. The flowers are quite charming white, sometimes tinged with pink, on the ends of the branches. It is the fall show of berries and color that makes this an excellent choice as a specimen, in the shrub border, or soggy area of the garden. The berries are glossy and full, in either black or red. Not picky about soil, moderately fertile, moist, well-drained, full sun or part shade. Prune in the spring; remove suckers when the plant is dormant. Propagation is by seed or softwood cutting in early summer. Leaf spot and rusts may be a problem.


Barberis commonly called barberry is a genus, which contains about 350 species of evergreen and deciduous shrubs found naturally in all parts of the N. hemisphere. Uses range from dwarf species suitable for rock gardens to shrub borders, hedges and specimens. Grown in almost any well-drained soil, full sun to part shade, fruiting and color more intense full sun. Prone to scale, mites and weevils, canker, dieback, mildew and root rot.


Bougainvillea is a genus that has 14 species of evergreen shrubs and trees, and climberís native to forest and thickets in tropical and subtropical South America. Leaf cutters, aphids, bacterial and fungal leaf spots are common problems.


Buddleia better known as butterfly bush is a genus of about 100 species of shrubs, subshrubs, trees and climbers found naturally around riversides, rocky areas and scrub in Asia, Africa, North and South America. They are cultivated for their fragrant, miniature, lilac-like panicles of blooms beloved by butterflies. Grow in fertile, well-drained soil, full sun and pruning for most is in the spring. A late flowering plant, it is best to keep spent blossoms trimmed for a continuous show. Sow seeds in spring or root semi-ripe cuttings in summer. Tender growth is susceptible to caterpillars, moths and mites but usually overcome as the plant matures.


Buxus is better known as boxwood and the genus contain over 70 species of slow growing evergreen shrubs found naturally in diverse habitats in Europe, Asia, Africa and Central America. A most compliant plant but prefers well-drained soil full sun. Plagued by its own parasite the boxwood leaf miner is a most serious pest.


Catalpa is a genus of 11 species of deciduous trees native to North American and E. Asia.  Grown for their handsome foliage and large conspicuous panicle blooms catalpa makes a great specimen for the yard providing you give this tree plenty of space. The Southern catalpa is often called the Indian bean tree while the Northern version is called just that or Chinese catalpa. They like fertile, moist but well-drained soil full sun but sheltered from strong winds. Pruning or more serious pollard or coppiced, radically pruning down to the ground or just leaving main leaders, is recommended biannually to produce the large ornamental leaves. Propagation is from seed in a cold frame in autumn or root softwood cuttings in late spring. Powdery mildew, white rot, dieback, and leaf spot can be problems as well as mealybugs, whiteflies, scale and aphids.


Caryopteris is a genus of 6 species of aromatic deciduous and perennial shrubs naturally found on woodland slopes of E. Asia. Early to break dormancy it should be cut back to new growth at that time. Grow in moderately fertile soil full sun to part shade. Surprisingly pest and disease free.


Chamaecyparis or false cypress is a genus of 7 species of evergreen, coniferous trees found naturally in the forests of Taiwan, Japan and North America. Great for screening and specimens and they make excellent hedges, on the whole slow growing, tolerant of alkaline soil they prefer well-draining conditions full sun.


Cotinus or smoke tree is a genus of 2 species of deciduous trees and shrubs occurring naturally in rocky habitats from the Mediterranean region to China and the S. US. Moderately fertile, moist but well-drained soil full sun to part shade. Prune to specific cultivar requirements.


Cotoneaster is a genus of more than 200 species of deciduous or evergreen shrubs and trees naturally occurring in woodland and rocky areas in temperate regions of Europe, Asia, and N. Africa. They thrive in moderately fertile, well-drained soil; most will tolerate dry positions sun to part shade. Pruning is cultivar specific, pests and diseases include rust, powdery mildew, stem cankers, fire blight, scale, rose slugs, spider mites, slugs and snails.


Ericaceae is the genus of both azaleas and rhododendrons and contains over 900 species of evergreen and deciduous trees and shrubs native to Europe, Australia, North America and Asia. Occurring in diverse habitats from deep forest to alpine tundra, sea level to high altitudes they vary greatly in habit. Grown for their spectacular flowers in every color imaginable. They like acidic, moist but well-drained soil, dappled shade Susceptible to whitefly, leafhoppers, scale, aphids, mildew, and root rot if the soil is not sufficiently acidic.


Euonymus is a genus of 175 species of deciduous, semi-evergreen and evergreen shrubs and climbers found naturally in woodlands and thickets in Asia. They are cultivated specifically for their foliage, autumn color and funky fruit. The garden uses of euonymus range from shrub border, specimen plantings, hedging and groundcover. All like well-drained soil, full sun light shade, and variegated colors more sun is needed for enhanced leaves. Mites, scale, leaf miners, aphids and mealybugs attack as does mildew, dieback and fungal spots.


Forsythia is a genus of about 7 species of shrub found naturally in open woodland areas of E. Asia. The 4-petaled yellow flower is borne profusely before the leaves in early and mid-spring. Only winters fluctuating temperatures can kill the flower buds. Forsythia makes a great hedge or can stand alone as a specimen. They like moderately fertile, moist but well-drained soil, full sun. To propagate this shrub pin green growth down in late spring separating from the parent after a full growing season.


Fraxinus better known as ash is a genus of about 65 species of deciduous trees found in woodlands in Europe, North America and Asia. Excellent specimen trees they are faster growing than elms or oaks. They like fertile, moist but well-drained neutral to alkaline soil full sun. Leaf spot, powdery mildew, rust, anthracnose, cankers, and dieback are commons as are borers, leaf miners, ash sawfly, fall webworm and scale.


Hamamelis, commonly called witch hazel, is a genus of about 6 species of shrubs native to North America and E. Asia in woodland, woodland margins and riverbanks. Grown for their autumn color and cold-resistant, fragrant, spider-shaped flowers. Most bloom early winter, or late winter to early spring when a burst of yellow or orange is startling to behold in the gray of November or February. A most excellent addition to the garden and best when grouped, or as a specimen, and certainly in a woodland setting. They like fertile, moist but well-drained soil, full sun to part shade. Gall aphids, scale and mildews may be a problem but generally this is a most hardy genus.


Hibiscus is known by many different names. Rose-of-Sharon is one member of the hibiscus genus that has over 200 species of deciduous shrubs, trees, annuals and perennials naturally found world-wide. Rose-of-Sharon need long, hot summers, rich, moist well-drained soil full sun.  Bloom time is midsummer to early autumn with numerous bud sets on a single branch it gives the appearance of continuous blooms. The rose-of-Sharon is a conical shaped shrub that can reach heights of 15' with a 6' spread. Easily sown from seed in the spring this species is wonderfully fast growing and remarkable disease and pest free and requires little or no pruning. Suitable as a specimen and a great addition to the small space garden. 


Hydrangea is a genus of about 80 species found naturally in East Asia, North and South America. Grown for their shown flowerheads and often-interesting bark. The flowers are divided into two groups, lacecaps that have flattened flowerheads and hortensias with the pompom or rounded flowerheads. Flower color is determined by the amount of aluminum ions and acidity in the soil resulting in either pink or blue. Excellent as a specimen, a shrub border, or in containers. Climbers can be used to hide a fence or decorate a tree; flowerheads of all types can be successfully dried and used in arrangements. Grow in moist, well-drained soil full sun or part shade. Shelter from extremes. Prune after flowering, not in spring, as buds are already set. Propagation is from soft root cuttings in early summer or semi-ripe non-flowering shoots in summer. Susceptible to mold, slugs, mildew, rust and ringspot and leaf spot virus are common.


Lonicera commonly called honeysuckle is a genus of about 180 species of deciduous and evergreen shrubs and climbers native to the N. hemisphere, growing in varied habitats ranging from woodland, thickets, to rocky scrub. Cultivated for their tubular or bell-shaped and often fragrant flowers. Climbers can be trained on a wall or fence, or up a tree trunk. Shrubs can be used as hedging or as groundcover. All like fertile, well-drained soil, full sun or part shade, water freely and feed monthly. Prune after flowering trim hedges during the summer. Sow seeds as soon as they are ripe or in the spring, take greenwood cuttings for propagation during summer. Prone to aphids, scale, dieback and powdery mildew and blight.


Maclura pomifera is commonly known as the Osage orange. The thorny shrubs and trees are found naturally in East Asia to Australia, central US to South America. They can be evergreen or deciduous and can be found in woodlands, clearings and along roadsides. It bears clusters of green flowers in spring but in the fall it is the fleshy, sticky, green apple colored, bumpy orange-like fruit that distinguishes this genus.


Malus better known as crabapple is a genus of about 35 species of deciduous trees and shrubs found in woodland settings and tickets in Europe, Asia and North America.Grown for their fragrant flowers and edible fruit they make ideal specimens. Not particular about soil moderately fertile, moist but well-drained full sun to part shade. A huge susceptibility to diseases and pests including scab, rust, fireblight, crown and fruit rot, Japanese beetles, caterpillars, fruit worms, scale, aphids and borers. Prune late winter or early spring.


Magnolia is a genus of about 125 species of evergreen trees and shrubs naturally occurring in woodland areas, scrub and along riverbanks from the Himalayas to E and SE Asia, North and South America. Grown for their showy, solitary, fragrant, star, cup, or goblet shaped flowers. Grow in moist, well-drained humus-rich soil preferably on the acidic side, full sun or part shade. Magnolias are often damaged by late frosts or spent too early with weeklong heat waves. They are relatively fast growing.  Common problems can be bacterial leaf spot, canker, dieback, mildew, snails, weevils, scale and thrips


Picea is the genus and spruce is the common name and contains about 40 species of coniferous trees found in the cool regions of the Northern hemisphere. Spruces have whorled needle-like leaves that set singly around the shoots. Cones set erect at flowering and later hang ripening in a single season. Diseases and pests include rots, rust, aphids, caterpillars, mites, nematodes and scale. Generally spruces are a slow grower.


Pinaceae is the genus commonly called hemlock. This is a genus of 10 species of evergreen, coniferous trees. Grow in well-drained soil full sun to shade. Slow growing and needing plenty of water pests are unlikely to do mortal damage.


Pinus or pine is a genus of approximately 120 species of evergreen coniferous trees and shrubs widely distributed in forest from the Arctic Circle to Central America, Africa, SE Asia and Europe. Mugo, white, Japanese red, Korean, loblolly, ponderosa are all pines. The easiest way to recognize a pine is that the needles are bunched or in a spray. They like well-drained soil full sun. Pest and diseases include sawfly, caterpillars, scale, mealybugs, miners, borers, blister rust, butt rot, blights, canker, cone rust, tar spot and brown cubical rot.


Populus better known as Aspen, cottonwood or poplar trees is a genus of about 35 species of deciduous trees found naturally in a diverse range of habitats worldwide. Cultivated for their rapid upright growth they are favored by developers for that reason. Tolerant of any soil the invasive root system may cause extensive damage to building foundations and drainage systems. Prone to borers miners, caterpillars, scale, canker, rots, gall, dieback, blister, rust and mildew.


Quercus is the genus given the oak and contains about 600 species of evergreen and deciduous trees widely distributed throughout the N hemisphere. They are great specimens and like deep, fertile, well-drained soil full sun or part shade. Borers, caterpillars, including the gypsy moth larvae, leaf miners, skeletonizers, scale, leaf rollers can be problems as well as wilt, anthracnose, twig blight, cankers, leaf blister, rust, mushroom root rot, and a variety of leaf spots may occur.


Rhus commonly called sumac, nutgall tree, shining sumac, wax tree, skunkbush, staghorn or varnish tree grows wild just about everywhere in the world, easier listing places where it doesn't. Rhus is a genus of about 200 deciduous or evergreen shrubs, trees and woody climbers. Found in all soil types, woodland, thickets, bogs, and rocky slopes. Sumac is cultivated for the showy fruit and brilliant shades of yellow, red, or orange in the fall. Flowers are insignificant in spring, summer lush green leaf growth is pleasing, berries or fruit are interesting, but definitely it is for the autumn color that makes this genus.


Salix commonly called willow is a genus of about 300 deciduous trees and shrubs naturally found all over the world except Australia. There are some wonderful species so diverse in forms sighting corkscrew, black, coyote, the upright Swiss, weeping, dwarfs of all types The catkins are the show for this genus which are followed by leaves.  Willows are fast growing and capable of being a wonderful specimen in a short time. This is a genus best suited around water or wet sites, full sun, and give the roots plenty of room, as they can be invasive. Prone to gall, canker and dieback, and rot of various types, a favorite of caterpillars and borers. Branches are strong additions to arrangements or spring statements alone, easily rooted from stems in water. Whatever forms all will require pruning.


Saguaro is the giant cactus native to a small area in the desert southwest United States and NW Mexico. These slow growing behemoths can attain a height of 30 feet and may not bear flowers until after 30 years. Now protected as a national treasure vast stands of saguaros were destroyed during the 1800s. The root system of the saguaro extends to a depth of about 3 feet but lateral roots extend for hundreds.


Spiraea is a most dependable genus of about 80 species of deciduous or semi-evergreen shrub found naturally in rocky places, woodland edges and riverbanks in N temperate regions worldwide. They like fertile, moist but well-drained soil, pruning on most is after flowering. Dieback, powdery mildew, leave spot, scale and aphids may affect spireaís.


Syringa better known as lilac is a genus of about 20 species of shrubs. Grown for their large pyramidal panicles of fragrant tubular flowers. They like fertile, well-drained soil, full sun. Pruning is done after flowering to encourage next yearís bloom. Propagation is from greenwood cuttings in early summer. Best advised is to go with a hardy cultivar that is a proven grower in the area. Prone to powdery mildew, dieback, and caterpillars can also be a problem.


Taxus is the genus commonly called evergreen or yew and is a grouping of 5 to 10 species of shrubs and small trees naturally found in forest extending to temperate regions of the Philippines and Central America. The stalwart bases of most foundation plantings they tolerate dry soil, coastal exposure and urban pollution, alkaline or acidic soil, full sun or deep shade. Excellent as yard specimens, hedges and topiaries. Pests include mites, mealybugs, scale and weevils.


Viburnum is a genus of 150 species of evergreen and deciduous shrubs, native to Asia and South America. And the flowers! Flowers are borne in clusters and are tubular-trumpet-shaped forming domed heads or looking similar to "lacecaps," color range is white or cream, pink-flushed. May be followed by ornamental fruit that may be red, blue, or black. Viburnums are suitable for a shrub border or woodland garden. They also put on a great show in the fall. Grow in moderately fertile, moist but well-drained soil full sun or part shade. Mold, mildews, aphids, beetles and mealybugs may be a bother.


Wisteria is a genus of 10 species of woody, deciduous, twining climbers found in moist woodland and stream banks in China, Korea, Japan, and central and southern US. Wisteria is a rapid grower and needs plenty of support. Grow in moist, fertile well-drained soil full sun or part shade. Prune late summer. Southern climates have more problems with pests then do northern zones. Once established vigorous plants should be able to fight all problems.


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